When writing assignments and other pieces of academic work, you must reference all sources (i.e. books, journal articles and websites) that have informed your writing. If you don't reference all sources used, you may be penalised for plagiarism, a serious academic offence that could negatively impact your future career.
Below is a general overview of the 2 main reference styles used at Queen's. For more detailed information, check your module handbook or study guide for course-specific referencing instructions.
You can also click the link below for referencing information from the Student Guidance Centre.
Referencing involves adding in-text citations to your work, every time you reference someone else's ideas. These citations point to references in a reference list at the end of your work.
The format of your in-text citations and reference list is determined by the reference style you use. The 2 most common reference styles are introduced below.
All information is taken from the book Cite Them Right (10th edition) by Richard Pears & Graham Shields (2016). Copies of this book may be borrowed from the Library: details are below.
Harvard in-text citations consist of:
Here is an example of a Harvard in-text citation:
Items in a Harvard reference list appear at the end of your document, arranged alphabetically by author, then (if necessary) chronologically by year. Harvard references consist of different elements, depending on the type of source being referenced:
If you read the article on-line, include:
A doi is a Digital Online Identifier, and may be displayed at the start or end of a full-text article.
Here is an example of a Harvard journal article reference:
Vancouver in-text citations consist of numbers in brackets (or in superscript).
Each numbered citation references an item in a reference list at the end of your document, in which references are listed numerically i.e. in the order that they appear in your text.
Unlike Harvard references, Vancouver references contain minimal punctuation.
Like Harvard references, Vancouver references consist of different elements, depending on the type of source: